Efforts to mobilize repairs on the west tower blue dome of Our Lady of Good Voyage are underway. Photos show some of the damage to the inspiring tower that was sustained after the windstorm this week. If you wish to help the cause to restore, on line donations can be made at the church: https://ccgronlineolgv.churchgiving.com/ The Church, all of Gloucester & greater Cape Ann, and all the artists and admirers of Our Lady of Good Voyage around the world would surely appreciate the support!
The Portuguese church of Our Lady of Good Voyage on Prospect Street in Gloucester is resilient. The church was re-built after a catastrophic fire in 1914. Thousands attended the laying of the cornerstone on May 24, 1915. (Less than ten years later, during the year of the city’s tercentenary, parishioners celebrated the mortgage liquidation.) One of our city’s most cherished buildings, the landmark was added to the National Historic Register of Historic Places in 1990.
For more about Edward Hopper work in Gloucester, Mass. see here
For more about Gordon Parks work in Gloucester, Mass. see series 2012-14 here
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I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight, and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together.
This is our hope. This is the faith that I go back to the South with. With this faith, we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day.
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. “I Have a Dream” speech March On Washington Lincoln Memorial 1963.
Asa Philip Randolph introduced MLK: “the moral leader of our nation”, “campaign against the citadel of racism”, “Martin Luther King”, “J.” “R.”– you can listen below in rare film clips shot on that day
photo: installation view at The Cooper Gallery Harvard, Gordon Parks exhibition 2019 by C. Ryan — Parks’ photo journalist and cinematic chops in this sea of us momentous moment, March on Washington, 1963, view from Lincoln Memorial to Washington Monument. [*Lincoln designed by Daniel Chester French unveiled 1922; Washington Monument designed by Robert Mills; completed by Thomas Casey and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, dedicated 1884.] For more about Gordon Parks work in Gloucester, Mass. see my series 2012-14 here
Among the speakers and performers (* appear in film clip): Marian Anderson, Josephine Baker, Joan Baez* (audio early, then w/video 9:38-10:26), Harry Belafonte, Dr. Eugene Carson Blake* (16:59-17:28), Bobby Darin, Ossie Davis* (but only when he introduces Burt Lancaster 10:27), Ruby Dee (co-emcee with Ossie Davis), Bob Dylan, Freedom Singers* with choir (We shall not be moved 7:14 – 9:06), Dick Gregory, Martin Luther King Jr.* (18:18 – 18:59 press conference), Lena Horne, Mahalia Jackson, Eva Jessye Choir* (12:41 Freedom is the thing we’re talking about – Yolanda Clarke on organ), Burt Lancaster* (traveled from Paris to speak, 10:35-12:02), John Lewis* (video only – standing behind Reuther 17:29), Dr. Benjamin Mays* ( 14:34-15:36 benediction), Odetta, Peter Paul & Mary* (clips & audio of Blowin in the wind and If I had a hammer 3:18-4:33 first set), Asa Philip Randolph* (16:16-16:57 and again intro MLK 18:18), Bayard Rustin* (12:11 video only); Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth* (9:08- 9:27), Walter Reuther* (17:29-18:16), Camilla Williams (stepped up for the National Anthem; with the big crowds, Marian Anderson was too late, and would sing later in program. Williams famous, too, and worked with Jessye on Porgy & Bess.), Roy Wilkins* (13:41-14:28) and Josh White.
Opens with crowd walking and singing “we stay home and you’ll be gone…jail for more than a week, all I had was beans to eat…because my home is Danville”; do you know the song?
Parade and marching band 4:34-5:40.
Eva Jessye Choir at 7:14-9:06 with Freedom singers “We shall not be moved” and later “Freedom is the thing we’re talking about” where Eva Jessye herself can be seen directing from back. I don’t know the soloists- the gorgeous baritone, Robeson-esque at 12:36, and at 18:69 a stunning soprano soaring “We shall overcome” choir version, with crowd. The Eva Jessye Choir was the official choir for the March on Washington. Her long and storied career took off as chorus director for the Virgil Thomson and Gertrude Stein opera, “Four Saints in Three Acts” in 1934 and Gershwin’s “Porgy and Bess” the following year. She worked with Marian Anderson, Paul Robeson and more.
Notables marching with the crowd and/or mingling with dignitaries and speakers included: Faye Anderson, Josephine Baker, James Baldwin, Leon Bibb, Marlon Brando, Diahann Carroll, Tony Curtis, Bobby Darin, Sammy Davis Jr., Tony Franciosa, James Garner, Charlton Heston, Joseph Mankiewicz, Rita Moreno, Gordon Parks, Paul Newman, Rosa Parks, Gregory Peck, Sam Peckinpah, Sidney Poitier, Jackie Robinson, Bill Russell, Robert Ryan, and Joanne Woodward. Senators present: Phillip Hart (D-Mich), Wayne Morse (D-OR), and William Proxmire (D-WI), and Mayor Wagner (NYC).
During the march, news spread that W. E. B. DuBois died the previous night in Ghana. King delivered an earlier iteration of the sermon in Detroit, orchestrated by Rev. C.L. Franklin, Aretha Franklin’s father.
So much hope and progress, and mere weeks later, retaliation. The Birmingham Baptist church bombing was on September 15, 1963. Within five years of the March on Washington, Malcolm X and King were killed.
archival description of the film: “ARC Identifier 49737 / Local Identifier 306.3394. Scenes from Civil Rights March in Washington, D.C., August 1963. People walking up sidewalk; gathering on Mall, standing, singing. Lincoln Memorial, Washington Monument, crowd gathered on the Mall. People marching with signs, many men wearing UAW hats. People at speakers podium, men with guitars. Crowds outside of the White House, sign: The Catholic University of America. Band, people marching down street. Many signs, including All D.C. wants to vote! Home Rule for DC; Alpha Phi Alpha; and Woodstock Catholic Seminary for Equal Rights. Lincoln Memorial with crowds gathered around reflecting pool. People singing and clapping at speakers platform. Signs, people clapping. Man speaking, woman playing guitar and singing at podium. More speakers and shots of the crowd. A chorus, NAACP men in crowd. Close-ups of people in crowd with bowed heads. Shots taken from above of White House. More speakers, including Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. Women at podium singing We Shall Overcome. Crowd swaying, singing, holding hands.”
2013 MFA, Boston John Wilson exhibition of his many MLK studies
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Henryk Ross (1910-1991) was one of less than 900 known survivors of 160,000 confined to the Lodz Ghetto by German Nazis.
photo caption: details from exhibition wall text
Before 1939, Ross was a photojournalist for the Polish press and heroically that didn’t stop in the ghetto. He was forced to photograph identity cards for every captive, promotional material, and assignments, often gruesome, for the oppressors’ “Department of Statistics”. While photographing ostensibly for “work” he snapped away bearing witness, building evidence and leaving a record. His wife Stefa was imprisoned there as well, aiding and encouraging his activity. They were married in the ghetto. Ross’s cover necessitated movement, access to equipment, developing, and film: His perilous “employee” theft went undetected. Henryk Ross was a brave front lines prisoner and artist surreptitiously documenting specific and deteriorating realities of the innocents for five years– building a body of persistent resistance. He was a war photographer and patriot I did not know before this exhibition and will not forget.
photo caption: selected photos on display at the MFA (click to enlarge and for more information) genocide day by day
genocide of children is genocide of the children
there are no words
weapon of starvation
Ghetto police bags of bread
fecal workers series- some are barefoot
Yellow star on scarecrow- star of david on back and arm
Horrifying removal of children under 10 years old-
Miraculously both survived, and some negatives. Ross’s work was used as evidence in the 1961 trial of Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann. They testified together. By then he hadn’t photographed anything for years and wouldn’t ever again. “I buried my negatives in the ground in order that there should be some record of our tragedy… I was anticipating the total destruction of Polish Jewry. I wanted to leave a historical record of our martyrdom.” -Henryk Ross
I wonder if there is a memorial plaque on Jagielonska Street near where he hid them?
As this repository was such an exacting chronicle and similar camera format, I thought about curating a show of American FSA/OWI photographers, Ross’s contemporaries, working with home front goals in the same time span as Ross. In 1942 Howard Lieberman and Gordon Parks official assignments included portraits in Gloucester, Massachusetts, of family members missing deployed husbands, brothers, sons and daughters, of a community honoring Memorial Day, of fishermen hard at work providing “Victory Food From American Waters”. People helping. Brave souls. (FSA photograpers and FSA had earned clout pre-1937. Did they inspire Ross? Decades later, did these artists ever come to know each other’s works?)
The exhibition included examples of the Lodz ghetto horrifying, gutting circulars. I used Google translate to transcribe a few of the letterpress announcements. I imagine that the Art Gallery of Ontario will crowd source volunteer transcription one day.
Keep Calm and Carry On pronouncements here, too
Aug 12, 1940 Announcement 104: Jews! Remain Calm! The events of the last days were triggered by the responsible elements that we wanted to bring chaos into our cycle. These people are aimed at the only important benefits allowed to organize positive and appropriate help for the population. In a short period of time since the creation of the ghetto, after great hardships, it was possible to obtain work from the outside for parts of tailors, carpenters, shoemakers, lappers and seamstresses; soon I will get employment for other crafts, as well as for handicrafts. The Municipal Budget is Overstated. Supplying children and the elderly is still in the foreground. Pomino will be equipped with kitchens for all: old and young. Regardless of the (?) general kitchen for workers and the unemployed, which will be issued with 10,000 tanks per day and for various layers (also for religious Jews) – block committees will continue to be supplied. this is a positive plan that must be spotted. this is not an easy task. therefore I am appealing to you with an appeal: keep calm. Do not allow yourself to be misled with irresponsible elements that would hinder your previous work and fulfill your future intentions. I WANT TO SAVE PEOPLE. I will do everything that is possible and I will strive to ensure that my tasks are carried out with all due diligence – Ch. Rumkowski
March 22, 1942 Announcement No. 371 : Resettlement Subject: Orders concerning the transfer of the ghetto. Spatialization of the western ghetto part…From the Donnersiteg, the western part of the ghetto must be cleared of all residents and workers. the people living and working there must therefore be in the east… I hereby announce that the resettlement continues to take place on the initiative of the authorities. I urge the persons concerned – who are destined for resettlement – to do so. upon receipt of the departure request, it is essential that you arrive punctually at the meeting time prescribed by you, otherwise you will have to leave the country without any additional packing. litzmannstadt-ghetto the 22nd, marz 1942 Ch. Rumkowski* is the oldest of the Jews in Litzmannstadt
excerpt from the MFA museum label (photo below) concerning Administration and Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski: “…The Elder of the Jewish Council, Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski, believed the residents might survive if they became productive…Due to its remarkable productivity, Lodz was the last Polish ghetto to be liquidated. The Jewish Council played a problematic role in the history of the Lodz Ghetto. Its members were forced to implement Nazi policy, but were perceived as privileged in return. Rumkowski remains one of the Holocaust’s most controversial figures.”- MFA label
August 22, 1942 Announcement no. 428 Concerning the size of the ghetto In addition to the previously no longer enter. Who does not follow this request and on Thursday d. 24 august 1944, after 7 o’clock early in these areas as well as in the already cleared still encountered, is struck, with death… It is bounded by the area: in the west … limited: in the east … limited: to the south … limited; in the East… and slow to the south… For special attention Workers barracked in these areas in closed premises can remain in their workplace and be allowed to work in the same place. Secret State Police
September 4, 1942 Announcement No. 391 General Curfew in Ghetto
Museum of Fine Arts display label (see photo above) “On September 4, 1942, Lodz Ghetto populace was told that elderly and sick residents and children under the age of 10 would be deported from the ghetto. This notice forbade the remaining residents from leaving their homes while deportees were collected. “From Saturday September 5 1942 from 5pm on a general curfew is in effect until revoked. Excepted are: firefighters, the Transportation Department, feces and garbage haulers, workers involved in the reception of goods at the Baluty Market Square and the Radogoszcz (station), doctors and pharmacy personnel.”
from the digitized archives: click to enlarge and read description
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IPSWICH Come Paint with Me Decorative Painting Demonstration, Hosted byJohanne Cassia, American Folk Artist, AnnTiques’ owner. Co-founder of the Woman Owned Businesses Along the Essex Coastal Scenic Byway trail map celebrating street level, local women retailers from Gloucester, Essex, Ipswich and Rowley who share a regional ‘Main Street’ – Route 133/1A, part of the gorgeous 90 mile Essex Coastal Scenic Byway
This intimate and museum worthy exhibition, THE MANSHIPS, is a rare chance to see and purchase original work by a talented family of artists: Paul Manship, Margaret Cassidy (daughter in law), and John Paul Manship (son). The show closes August 6th. Flatrocks Gallery is located at 77 Langsford Street, in Gloucester, Massachusetts.
(b. 1885 St Paul, MN – d. 1966 NY, NY)
Paul Manship was an American sculptor of international status. His most famous work of art was the public art fountain he was commissioned to create for Rockefeller Center in New York City. The 18 feet high, gilt bronze statue of the treasured Greek myth, Prometheus Bringing Fire From Heaven, soars above the skating rink. It was installed in 1934 during the Great Depression and includes an inscription above the statue: “Prometheus, teacher in every art, brought the fire that hath proved to mortals a means to mighty ends.” (The artist’s model for Prometheus was a lifeguard from New Rochelle, NY, hired regularly for life classes at women’s colleges. I have not been able to track down a picture of him at work, but have tried.) Prometheus refers to the Titan granted the power of creating mankind out of mud and water. What was missing? Fire, of course, which Prometheus stole from the Gods, a selfless act for humanity that nearly had him punished for eternity (in a memorably sad, gruesome and groundhog day bit of the myth) if not for Hercules. In Manship’s ingenious composition, heaven and earth are filled with Prometheus, clutching fire coals, and the artist’s signature forms and themes in every detail. Note the forms of the water spray in this photo from 1934 and the effect of the water over the base!
photo caption: 1943 Christmas Tree, Skaters, Paul Manship Prometheus, Rockefeller Center
photo caption: Gordon Parks, 1945 with detail showing back and hair of Paul Manship Prometheus
photo caption: Carol Highsmith Rockefeller Center (Paul Manship Prometheus) ca.1980
Why am I going into such detail about the Prometheus statue?
Paul Manship lifetime bronzes from the family estate have been made available for sale during this exhibition!
This exhibit at Flatrocks includes a complete set of Manship’s famous tondo Zodiac medallion ashtrays, ca.1946 ($18,000). Manship was a cigar smoker. Ashtrays weren’t a big creative leap from medallic art. He created his first one in 1915. They were utilitarian, and sculptural objects. He did this with architectural details in his home, a Manship (rather than Midas) touch. He worked out a deal with Medallic Art Company to replicate them. People bough their favorite zodiac sign for themselves or as gifts. Even if you don’t know Manship’s motifs like the zodiac ring around Prometheus, it’s fun to linger and observe the entire set.
photo caption: Installation view of display case, an exhibition within an exhibition.
Compare the Paul Manship Aquarius from the Zodiac set with a zoomed in detail from Prometheus
A first edition of Manship’s creative and original representation of Venus Anadyomene “Venus Rising from the Sea” is also available for sale! It’s modeled in bronze and set on a marble base, measuring 7.5″ (not including base) and dates from 1924 ($42,000).
Artists and patrons through the ages couldn’t resist this Aphrodite lure. Manship’s sculpture isn’t as famous as Botticelli’s, but it should be — and not just because his kneeling modern beauty has the best wrought hair wringing out there. It’s just a fabulous sculpture.
The main commission for the new Addison Gallery building at Phillips Academy which opened in 1931 was this Manship sculpture. Unforgettable and rendered in gorgeous alabaster, the Addison Gallery’s Venus Anadyomene from 1927 is one of the world’s most optimally sited sculptures. The whole museum flows from this Venus. Now you can purchase the sculpture that inspired Addison’s architect, Charles Platt, to make such a brilliant selection. Platt also designed the Freer Gallery in Washington, DC, which is equally sublime.
Another life cast that’s for sale is this vividly detailed and lovely Perseus and Andromeda, 1965 ($39,000). There’s a rescue and great tension so effective with the mixed materials, florid and fascinating. There’s poor Andromeda sacrificed by her mother Cassiopeia to appease Poseidon and beg off a sea monster. You can pick out the anger and emotion in that sea. The bag with Medusa’s severed head was captivating, bounced just so, side quests are still to come after all. Don’t miss the sword and winged sandals Hermes gave Perseus.
I’m fascinated by Manship’s treatment of time. Speaking of which, make sure to leave enough of it to study those glorious Manship reaching hands and gestures.
Another knock one’s socks off lifetime bronze that’s for sale is David, ca.1916-1921 ($72,000), mesmerizing composition and signature elegant articulation.
Manship came to Gloucester in 1915–before his first solo exhibition– and rented until the 1940s when they were able to purchase fourteen contiguous acres in Lanesville, ensuring the acquisition of two, gorgeous abandoned quarries. His daughter Pauline and her husband Ilmari Natti also bought a home in Lanesville in the 1940s. After Manship died, his son John Manship and daughter in law Margaret Cassidy continued to reside and work in the family estate. The Flatrocks Gallery location, vibe, and roster make it an ideal gallery for this exhibit and fundraiser. Proceeds will help the nationally significant Manship estate and property.
John Paul Manship (1927-2000)
Make sure to look back at John Manship’s work from the next room as well as up close. There are strong works from different series and decades primarily of the landscape and people about him, and so many greens! They range in price from $750-$10,000.
Margaret Cassidy Manship
(Cassidy died in 2012)
I was so intrigued by the 3 Cassidy works. The painting and bronze of Beryl Grimball are sold as a pair ($5000) and the portrait from life of Pope Pius XII is $7000. She also sculpted Pope John Paul II and Presidents Carter and Reagan. I hope to see more.
The landscape chain design encircling the site of the world famous Leonard Craske Man at the Wheel sculpture is lovely and simple. The repeating rings are an aesthetic choice and practical. There’s an understated wide ‘berth’ that’s respectful yet beckoning; one indelible memorial and thousands of ripples.
Perhaps the broken post was a snow plow? Who knows. Wonder how often a break occurs?
Two hundred feet of canal gravity wall is being reconstructed, extending from the bridge tender’s house around where you see visible in the photographs. This section of sea wall was dry laid granite block. The ebb and flow of tides and wakes took an inevitable toll, pulling debris material–like migrating soil— out from behind the wall. Over time the blocks settled, sidewalks sagged, and ruptures framed views into hollow voids 15 feet deep. Weakened considerably, areas were cordoned off until funding (Seaport Advisory and Executive Office of Environmental Affairs) was secured. The bridge tender’s house is abandoned which is why there is a temporary structure across the street. The state will be rebuilding that at a later date; the control house and the bridge are MassDOT purview and “likely a number of years out until a final plan is done.”
The new sea wall is the “mack daddy of building construction” befitting such an iconic locale. DPW is reusing the same gorgeous rugged blocks and materials, but now there’s footing where there never was any. The historic granite face is tied to reinforced steel. There’s a concrete core wall. Mike Hale Director of Gloucester’s Department of Public Works said the City is mindful of retaining the aesthetics and history, pronouncing any new stone “modular, lego-like” build an anathema to the site and residents.
Thanks to DPW for forwarding these details with labeled drawings explaining the infrastructure behind what’s visible:
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There was a respectful area set aside for the participants and families and incredible music. The poignant service made many cry.
Mayor Romeo-Theken sweeping gesture to the Fort, a heartfelt and knowing welcome
I folded some of Pauline Bresnahan’s great photographs into my photos for this post. Thanks for sharing, Pauline, they’re beautiful! I may add in excerpts from Linda Greenlaw’s beautiful tribute – optimism and the program details.
You can search prior year GMG coverage like this David Cox one and many more.
full title for the Gordon Parks photograph above: “Frank Domingos kissing a vessel representing remains of a saint, during ceremonies at his father’s home, part of the tri-annual fiesta of Pentacost. The celebration–including the chosing of an Imperator, and visiting, eating, drinking, and worship in the home, culminates in a parade and blessing by the priest–originated with ancient Portugeese fisherman, drought-stricken, who prayed for assistance and received it.”
Captain’s Courageous was published in 1897. “During the winter of 1897-98 I made another trip to South Africa, and on the same boat with me were Rudyard Kipling (Rudyard was named after a place where his father and mother first met), his wife, and his father, Lockwood Kipling, the artist. They proved excellent traveling companions and we have maintained our friendly contact ever sense.” – John Hays Hammond
The Kiplings collaborated: the artist John Lockwood Kipling illustrated many of his sons’ books.
Hunt purchased a former barn and adjoining carpenter’s shop in Magnolia. “…in three weeks the old, unsightly buildings were converted into a picturesque structure with galleries on the outside, one of them ending in a seat in an old willow-tree. The carpenter shop was turned into a studio, the chief light coming from the wide-open door…The barn was two stories in height, the lower portion being occupied by the van, a phaeton and a dog-cart, as well as by stalls for two or three horses. The upper room was known as the “barracks”, and half a dozen cot-beds were arranged around the sides, as seats by day and beds by night…In a single afternoon his celebrated Gloucester Harbor was painted, and he returned to Magnolia aglow with enthusiasm. “I believe,” he exclaimed, “that I have painted a picture with light in it!…Go out into the sunshine, and try to get some of its color and light. Then come back here, and see how black we are all painting!”
Lee Kingman, Peter’s Pony, 1963, with illustrations by Fen Lasell
Winslow Homer captures the waiting and watching experienced by so many families in Gloucester. Homer’s father, Charles Savage Homer, left for extended start-ups: to California for gold, to Europe. Winslow Homer’s mother was a professional and gifted artist who raised three stellar boys solo, a lot. The Homer family remained tight knit.
Friday Nights at the A&P
By Ruthanne “Rufus” Collinson
When I was a kid
there were Friday nights to get lost in.
There was Mama
to take me shopping,
the smell of outdoors on her wool coat.
There was the A&P on Main Street,
the long spread out time
to wander the rolling floors
and smell the oranges and the coffee grinding.
There was no talking with Mama and me
She chose the food and I thought,
the long time of thinking away from Mama
in the A&P.
I watched the women
with heavy faces and deep frowns
weighing out their fruits
I thought about how bad they looked,
but I knew they didn’t want to die
because of the way they cared
about stacking the apples.
Sometimes I lost Mama and her sadness
but she would find me and take me
to the check out
where I picked up Daddy’s Pall Malls
and then stayed close to her wide sleeve
as we carried our lumpy brown bags
past Paul T. Reddy’s Dancing School.
I heard people dancing upstairs
Shadows in the window suggested music
and the end of time laid out like that.
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Hancock St looking up toward City Hall Gloucester from Rogers Street. Bottom right in the photo would be Topside Grill and bottom left in the photo would be Turtle Ally. Gordon Parks was a black man who died in 2006 at age 93. He directed the movie Shaft and was a photographer for Life magazine. I find it interesting that a black man in 1943 was roaming the country taking photos that would be acclaimed.
Gloucester, Massachusetts. Street scene Photographer
In 1942, the Farm Security Administration Historic Photographic section program was winding down as it transitioned and prioritized for WWII. It was temporarily folded into the Office of War Information before shutting down completely. (Gordon Parks was brought on board during this transition.) Director Roy Stryker was occupied with many directives including securing a safe haven for the FSA archives. He was also maintaining a network of contacts in the publishing world and private sectors, and writing. He contributed a chapter for Caroline Ware’s influential book, The Cultural Approach to History. There was magazine work such as the 1942 issue of The Complete Photographer which published articles by both Arthur Rothstein (“Direction in the Picture Story”) and Roy Stryker (“Documentary Photography”.)
Rothstein had already left the FSA. In 1940, Peter E. Smith Publishers, Gloucester, MA, produced his photo book, Depression Years as Photographed by Arthur Rothstein. This compilation of photographs included the best known Gloucester image from his 1937 visit; was it one of the publisher’s, too.
In 1941, Elmer Davis was appointed as the Director of the newly created Office of War Information (OWI). In 1942, Davis hired Francis Edwin Brennan from FORTUNE magazine to head the Graphics Department of the OWI.
As Art Director of Fortune (1938-1942), Brennan commissioned famous covers by artists such as Otto Hagel and Fernand Leger. He was known in the industry as a serious art and publishing expert and was a favorite of Henry Luce.
It’s likely that Brennan was one contact for Howard Liberman’s engagement at OWI. In August of 1941 Brennan featured a FORTUNE magazine special portfolio of sample posters to showcase the development and potential of this media. Howard Liberman was one of the artists he commissioned; here’s his contribution for that issue:
And here is a poster Liberman created for the OWI.
Liberman worked with color photography, too, which is a sub-collection at the Library of Congress, less known than the black and white. Color photography was available, but more expensive to process and for media publishers to print.
Howard Liberman was dispatched to Gloucester in September of 1942. His photographs show a clear emphasis on WWII dominant coverage, sometimes with an FSA take. The titles on Liberman’s OWI photos often lead with a heading. For Gloucester, many images have caption leads that begin with the patriotic category: VICTORY FOOD FROM AMERICAN WATERS.
In Gloucester, Howard Liberman spent a time on the docks and out with the crew of the OLD GLORY.
His captions seldom include surnames of the portrait subjects. They do have lengthy– sometimes general, sometimes quite specific– descriptions to support the category heading.
There are action and portrait shots of the crew catching rosefish during an Old Glory voyage.
“Victory food from American waters. At the docks in Gloucester, Massachusetts, crew members prepare their trawler for a week’s voyage. Most of the fishermen in the city come from a line of fishermen that dates back for centuries.”
“Victory food from American waters. Immediately after being caught rosefish are shoveled into the hold for packing the ice. Once called “goldfish” because of their brilliant color, the fish are finding a ready market because of their manifold uses–as food for humans, as fish meal and fish oil.”
“Crew members throw overboard excess ice from Old Glory’s hold. Fishmen allow a proportion of one ton of ice to three tons of fish. When the catch is unusually large as on this trip, some ice is removed to make room for the fish.”
“Victory food from American waters. Decks are covered with tons of rosefish as the Old Glory reaches its capacity load. After two and one half days of fishing, a catch of 85,000 pounds has been hauled in”
“Tomorrow’s fishermen–young Gloucester boys push wagons of rosefish from the unloading pier to the processing plant where the fish are filleted and frozen…Many of the boys will follow their forefathers and fishermen in New England waters”
Look for ‘scenes’ such as Captain John Ribiera (surname spelled a couple of ways in the archive) at work and with his wife at home. 1942 census indicates “Oscar (Irene) fishermn Riberio” at 18 Perkins Street.
Note the picture of “the Pilot at the Wheel” above the stove
Another reminder to look for exhibits to see vintage prints in person, rather than the low resolution files I’m showing here. Various resolution options are available at the Library of Congress. Besides the formal details, check out the Captain’s eyes!
The “Mother of Good Voyages” statue in Captain John Riberia’s quarters on the fishing trawler “Old Glory”
There are a couple of Gloucester interiors (deteriorated negatives) of the Gloucester Mariners’ Association; they infer “captains welcome only.” One shows a gentleman playing cribbage; another shows Captain Ben Pine, the man who raced the schooner Gertrud Thebud.
Joey, beautiful dangerous industry: shoveling fish into the rotary scaler at a fish packing plant.
For assignments in other towns, typical headings for Liberman categories include:
Americans All; Subcontracting; School Boys in Training; Industrial Safety; Office Equipment Used by WPB; Women at War; Fuel Oil Consumption; Women Workers (see below making flags); Airports (ditto other industries); Military (e.g. Fort Belvoir); African American Aircraft Propeller Workers (ditto other jobs); Shipyard Workers; Bomber Plant Workers; Price Control; Production; Submarine Chasers; and Conversions (from this to look here it is now was a useful WWII product)
There are more than 50 additional Gloucester photos in the Library of Congress collection, and one Royden Dixon image from 1940.
We are fortunate that so many talented artists worked on the FSA/OWI project, that a few visited Gloucester, and that so many folks across the county were willing to participate as subjects (easier during the War)
The municipal employees and the curators and staff who have worked on these collections (over decades) are superstars. Beverly Brannan is the curator of 20th C documentary photography at the Library of Congress.
For the FSA/OWI program, Director Roy Stryker proselytized that photography was perhaps the best tool for analyzing living history. He felt that photography as a fine art form and its gains in technical ease and advances coincided ideally with the timing of the FSA/OWI historical photographic section. He forecast rapid and constant increase in photography use and adapters. He was inspired by individual and private pioneering antecedents (Brady/Civil War, Hines/Russell Sage), and public ones such as the documentary photographs by William Jackson for the Department of the Interior.
Sometimes I think of Stryker’s Section work along a continuum of government spending on exploration that produced great contemporaneous historical records. The journals of Lewis & Clark. The work created by artists who participated in the NASA Art Program. These FSA photographs.
Stryker realized that there were collections of photography building up in municipalities big and small; how they were catalogued and assessed were critical to their use. Here in Gloucester, the Cape Ann Museum maintains a Historic Photo Collection containing over 100,000 images from 1840s through now. Photography is included among its permanent and temporary exhibits and what’s not on view can be researched at their archives.
GLOUCESTER PHOTOGRAPHY PRE, DURING AND POST FSA/OWI
There were many independent artists as well as staff photographers (local newspapers, businesses such as Gorton’s, etc.) working in photography here in Gloucester. Every decade has wonderful examples such as Herbert Turner, Alice Curtis (and other photographers that Fred Bodin features), and David Cox’s father, Frank L. Cox.
There were numerous visits from staff photographers of major publications like Life, Vogue, National Geographic, and more. Gordon Parks came back at least two more times; a few other celebrated staff photographers that came through include Luis Marden, Eliot Elisofon, Yale Joel, Co Rentmeester and Arthur Schatz.
No- photographic artists who also worked in photography is another long list, and would include Leonard Craske, Emil Gruppe, Philip Reisman, and many others.
Good Morning Gloucester features photography, that’s for sure.
-Catherine Ryan / all photos Library of Congress, FSA/OWI black and white photography collection
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American Photographer ARTHUR ROTHSTEIN (1915-1985)19 FSA photos in Gloucester, MA, September 1937
Joey recently featured Wallflowers, by Gordon Parks on GMG which reminded me of the road less traveled within the historic collection of photographs archived at the Library of Congress and the New York Public Library. This post is Part 2 in a series on Gloucester images in this legendary Farm Security Administration / Office of War Information (FSA/OWI) collection. You can go back to Part 1 about Gordon Parks and for some background about the program.
Arthur Rothstein is one of Roy Stryker’s elite team of FSA/OWI photographers. There are over 10,000 photos by Rothstein alone in the massive collection. Rothstein became a premier American photo journalist and the Director of LOOK (1947-1971) and Parade magazines.Director Roy Stryker brought recent graduate Arthur Rothstein to WashingtonDC to set up a state of the art dark room for the new Resettlement Administration Historical Section. In his senior year at ColumbiaUniversity, Rothstein had worked with professors Tugwell and Roy Stryker.Rothstein was 20. Stryker had him out in the field almost immediately. The job meant he had to learn how to drive a car.
In May 1936, Rothstein’s South Dakota Badlands drought images caused controversy then, and discussion still. Rothstein’s April 1936 Oklahoma photograph of a father and his two boys fleeing Mother Nature in CimmaronCounty may be the archetypal image of the Dust Bowl.Here are a few examples and flavor of a fraction of Rothstein’s FSA work (broad themes): Mother Nature/Disaster; migrant workers and flight (showing one from MT); Gees Bend; sense of humor.Those images are followed by a few he did in Gloucester. The people are not identified in the Arthur Rothstein Gloucester photos. He’s here in 1937, the same year that the movie adaptation of Captains Courageous is a big hit.
There’s an artist in action, seen from the back. Who is it?
“Migratory workers returning from day’s work. Robstown camp, Texas. Everyday from twenty to thirty cars moving out from the Dakotas pass the Montana Highway Department’s port of entry.”
COLLECTION QUICK FACTS The Farm Security Administration/ Office of War (FSA/OWI)Director throughout = Roy Stryker acting akin to visionary art dealer
Photographers = Pioneers in the field of photo journalism, photography, including Dorothea Lange, Walker Evans, Arthur Rothstein, and GordonParks
Library of Congress FSA/OWI collection = Nearly 280,000 objects as follows: black and white negatives (170,000+); black and white prints (100,000+); color photographs (1600+). New York Public Library has a substantial collection.
1937 Arthur Rothstein: 10,000+ images (FSA/OWI) / 19 images Gloucester.Mostly rural images. For example 1400+ images in MT and less than 40 total for MA
1942 Gordon Parks: 1600+ (FSA/OWI) / 220+ images Gloucester. Gloucester names to search for: Frank Mineo, the Alden, Vito Cannela, Vito Camella, Vito Coppola, Frank Domingos, Gaspar Favozza, Giacomo Frusteri, Vito Giocione, Pasquale Maniscaleo, Anonio Milietello, Anthony Parisi, Franasco Parisi, Dominic Tello, Antonio Tiaro, Lorenzo Scola, the Catherine C; Mary Machado, Isabell and Joseph Lopez, Dorothy and Macalo Vagos, Irene Vagos, Francis Vagos
1942 Howard Liberman: 700+ (FSA/OWI) / 150+ images Gloucester. Gloucester names to search for: John Ribiera and his wife, the vessel Old Glory There are many portraits and most are not identified. Please help.
1940 Dixon: 350+ (FSA/OWI) / one image of Gloucester; headed the lab in DC
Occasionally when Stryker or the artist considered a photograph a reject, he would punch a hole through the negative.
TIMELINE FOR SOME SPECIFIC IMAGE CONTEXT (primarily pre 1950)1900W.E.B. Du Bois receives a gold medal at the 1900 Paris Exposition for curating and collaborating on a major exhibit featuring 500 photographs displaying the present conditions of African Americans
Along with an extensive visual archive, the FSA team was extremely versed and/or required to study images. One example: Lewis Hine, a NYC school teacher and sociologist who stirred American consciences with his photos. Margaret Sage, the widow of railroad magnate, Russell Sage, established an endowment to research social sciences still active today. Hine’s Ellis Island photographs landed a staff position with the Foundation. His work for them produced their first influential impact: the Pittsburgh Survey. From there, Hines was hired by the National Child Labor Committee and his photographs over the next decade were instrumental in changing child labor laws. Also Stieglitz, Charles White, Paul Strand, and many others.
Russel Smith’s North America, Its People and the Resources, Development, and Prospects of the Continent as an Agricultural, Industrial and Commercial Area
Tugwell with Stryker and Thomas Munro: American Economic Life
Hines was hired to photograph the construction of the EmpireStateBuilding. Ironically, despite his importance and direct influence on future photographers, the arc of his career ends with hard times. He was not included with the FSA hires.. The reception of Hines work declined so much that he was forced to sell his house. MoMA rejected his archives. George Eastman House took them in 1951.
Paul Robeson. Period–International influence.
The continued influence of Margaret Bourke-White. Her professional career took off in 1927. FORTUNE magazine sent her to cover Russia which published Eyes on Russia in 1931.
Huge audience for Mervyn Leroy’s movie I Am A Fugitive from a Chain Gang
FORTUNE magazine sends Margaret Bourke-White to cover the Dust Bowl
Henri Cartier-Bresson exhibits in the US
The Resettlement Administration Historical Section’s photographic project is tasked with documenting the crisis state of rural poverty. The government hires Roy Stryker. Stryker hires the photographers. Many other Federal creative arts programs.
The government sends Dorothea Lange to photograph migrant farm workers in CA. Lange, Walker Evans and Ben Shahn already established careers when hired for the FSA but not household names.
Berenice Abbott Changing New York
In November, LIFE magazine’s large-scale, photo dominant iteration is first published. LIFE sold more than 13 million copies per week
The Plow that Broke the Plains, Pare Lorentz with Pauls Strand, Steiner, others
The movie adaptation of Rudyard Kipling’s Captain’s Courageous is a huge hit.
FSA/OWI Arthur Rothstein is sent to Gloucester. Depression era movie audiences purchased 60 million tickets per week.
LOOK magazine starts publishing bi-weekly
You Have Seen Their Faces, photo-book collaboration by Erskine Caldwell and Margaret Bourke White is wildly successful so much so that it pushes back the publication of Let Us Now Praise Famous Men by James Agee and Walker Evans (1941)
The Resettlement Administration’s Historic Section folds into the Farm Security Administration (FSA). Stryker expands this photographic survey of Depression Era America, while publicizing the work of the FSA
Steinbeck’s Of Mice and Men is published in 1937. The movie adaptation opens 1939.
FSA group exhibit at the International Photographic Salon, Grand Central Palace, New York featured a selection of bleak but respectful images. Reviews felt that the photographers avoided negative stereotypes.
The tone of the exhibit was so influential that it was oft repeated. Stryker felt that well over ½ the images in the collection were affirmative and positive.
Richard Wright hired for the WPA Writers Project guidebook for New York and wrote the part on Harlem. He received a Guggenheim Fellowship and was able to finish Native Son.
Architectural Forum introduces Frank Lloyd Wright to American audiences. Managing Editor Ruth Goodhue was the first female at the head of any Time Inc publication, and a colleague of Stryker’s. Stryker credits RUTH GOODHUE* for propelling his encyclopedic quest to catalogue every day life with what sounds now like “a distinct sense of place”, 2014 placemaking terms. Her advice to Stryker echoes the later work of Jane Jacobs** “The Death and Life of Great American Cities”, the Main Street movement, and our current cultural district designations. Thirty years later Stryker credited numerous people, but he repeats his credit to Goodhue several times. Looking back, by the time 1940 rolls along, it’s Stryker’s creed. It’s thrilling how one inspirational comment can engender such a unique mobilization!
An American Exodus, photo book collaboration by Dorothea Lange and Taylor
FSA photos exhibited at the 1939 World’s Fair in New York City
Steinbeck’s Grapes of Wrath is published and is phenomenally successful. The 1940 movie adaptation is a blockbuster, too.
Richard Wright and Edwin Rosskam produce Twelve Million Black Voices. Migration coverage went to the city.
Movies Citizen Kane (trailer 1940) and How Green Was My Valley
Artists for Victory
Gordon Parks’ position within Stryker’s department is underwritten with the support of a Julius Rosenwald Fellowship. Rosenwald was a partner in Sears Roebuck. His foundation operated from 1917-1948 with the mandate to focus on the well-being of mankind and with a particular education outreach for African Americans. The endowment was to be spent down completely and it’s estimated that 70 million was given. Of particular note, from 1928-1948 open-ended grants were given to African American writers, researches, and intellectuals and the list is a Who’s Who of 1930s and 1940s. This is precisely the type awarded to Gordon Parks so that he could work at the famous FSA program.
Gordon Parks in Gloucester May and June. Howard Liberman in Gloucester, September.
May Four Freedoms Day; October 20 America in the War exhibits
FSA absorbed by the Office of War Information (OWI), focus shifts to the domestic impact of WWII
Edward Steichen’s Family of Man exhibit at the Museum of Modern Art includes many of the photos
The Bitter Years 1935-1941: Rural America Seen by Photographers of the FSA
Edward Steichen’s last and seminal exhibit as Director of the Museum of Modern Art is dedicated to Stryker and the FSA photographers. As with other FSA themed exhibits, photographs by Gordon Parks– and many other artists–were not included, still aren’t included.
Gees Bend quilts
*Roy Stryker on Ruth Goodhue
“Ruth Goodhue was the managing editor of “Architectural Forum.” Her father designed the very famous Nebraska capitol, a very unusual building. She was another one on my circuit. But I stopped to have breakfast with her, she was over at that time in the Chrysler Building with the Life complex there and I had breakfast with her and I went up to her office. She was the one that said — I’ll tell you this story because it’s how I reacted so often — “Roy Stryker, I wonder if all towns of 5,000 are alike, because they have the same boiler plate, they have the same radio programs, and so on?” Well, I had to go on a trip and when I got back I had an outline on small towns.” Also:
“She was a charming woman and very bright and very proactive. And she said to me, “Are all little towns in America alike because they read the same boiler plate, listen to the same radios on the air, and because they eat the same breakfast food?” Proactive questions, just what I needed. I have a very bad habit of writing memos to myself; I love to put things down, write a page after page and take it home. By the time I got back to Washington, the photographers hadn’t been taking pictures of the little towns they went through. So then there grew an outline — a perfect bombardment of twenty-five pages, I guess. Did you stay overnight? Let’s begin to cover the main street of America, you know, just to see what the heck occurs on it.”
As writer and associate editor of The Iron Age, Jane Jacobs published “30,000 Unemployed and 7000 Empty Houses in Scranton, NeglectedCity”, an article which brought attention to her home town. This led to more freelance work and in 1943 a job writing features for the US Office of War Information (OWI). After 1945 and into the 1950s, Jacobs wrote and was editor for the State Department’s magazine branch, primarily for Amerika Illustrated, a Russian language magazine. In the public sector she went on to Architectural Forum. I wonder if Goodhue was a mentor for Jacobs or if they had any overlap. I certainly consider the FSA/OWI files as formative for her ideas — and Goodhue influenced that program.
In New York City 1937, Charles Olson was hired by the government to work for the American Council of Nationalities Services, an agency that offered support programs for immigrants and refugees. He also wrote for the Office of War Information from 1942 – May of 1944. The timing overlaps with Jane Jacobs somewhat. Gloucester writer, Edward Dahlberg, introduced Olson to Alfred Stieglitz in New York City back in 1937.
Goodhue and Cram
Ruth Goodhue’s father, Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue, was a famous architect. Through his friendships with Ernest Fenollosa of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts and others in the orb of the Boston Society of Arts and Crafts (1897), he met architect Ralph Adams Cram. Goodhue and Cram partnered to form a successful architectural firm, in business together for over twenty years. They had great solo careers, too.
Cram designed the Atwood Home, Gallery-on-the-Moors, in East Gloucester, and preliminary plans for the towers on Hammond Sr’s property, and the inspiration or more for Stillington Hall and others.
-Catherine Ryan / all photos Library of Congress, FSA/OWI black and white photography collection
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Catherine Ryan on Gloucester, MA in landmark Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information (FSA/OWI) documentary photographs. Part 1
Have a look at Gloucester from this important collection. First up—the Gordon Parks post. 1942.
FOBs may recognize some of the faces, names, places. You recently featured the ‘American Gothic’Wallflowers, by this super artist on GMG which reminded me of the road less traveled within this historic collection of photographs archived at the Library of Congress and the New York Public Library.
This post is Part 1 in a series on Gloucester images in this legendary FSA/OWI collection. If you are interested in the scope of any Gloucester material from this collection, we know that at least 4 of the FSA/OWI photographers came through Gloucester, MA. No surprise, each photographer took photo(s) of the Fisherman at the Wheel. They also show the impact of WWII. If you can id any of the Gloucesterpeople, please contact me. I’ve listed some known Gloucester names at the end of the post.
In 1934 during the Great Depression, Fortune magazine dispatched Margaret Bourke-White to cover the Dust Bowl. She sent additional images to the New Masses and the Nation.
In 1935, for one of its many New Deal programs, the US government sent photographers across the country on assignment. Initially their photographs were intended to illustrate the results of the country’s latest efforts to alleviate rural poverty.
Ultimately, they created a legendary photographic record of 1935-1945.
Here is a jaw-dropping list of established and future notables who Stryker hired for this incredible visual encyclopedia: Esther Bubley, John Collier, Walker Evans, Dorothea Lange, Russell Lee, GordonParks, Marion Post Walcott, Louise Rosskam, Arthur Rothstein, Ben Shahn, George Stoney, John Vachon, and Marion Post Walcott. Stryker also primed an extensive “orbit” of contacts and influence.
What is the FSA/OWI collection? (See explanation at the end of this post.)
American Photographer GORDON PARKS (1912-2006)
119 FSA/OWI photos for Gloucester, MA, May and June 1942
In 2012, the International Center of Photography in New York commemorated the centennial of GordonPark’s birth with a year-long installation featuring 50+ photos (one of the Gloucester ones was in there).
Gordon Parks believed the positive reaction he received for some of his early fashion images was his first break (Melva Louis, Joe Louis’ first wife). This support pushed him to set up a photography portrait business in Chicago. He also photographed out in the streets. He was inspired by Norman Alley’s bombing of Panay coverage (1937). FSA/OWI photographer Jack Delano saw his work and urged him to try to enter Stryker’s program via a Rosenwald fellowship. He was 30 when he was brought on board and thrilled to join this famous group. He was the first African American to be hired by Stryker. He worked there less than two years as the program ended. He followed Stryker into a commercial job. Gordon Parks was a man of dazzling talents. His FSA/OWI photos hint at his many future creative pursuits. This work though was rarely seen.
You can see Parks skilled portrait photographs: leaders of faith, presidents of universities, people working and at home, such as Mrs. Isabell Lopez of Gloucester, mother of 6 holding her grandchild.
There are celebrity portraits: Paul Robeson, Mrs. Roosevelt with Wang Yung, Langston Hughes, and Richard Wright. Portraits and fashion were his bread and butter back in Chicago, before landing a post with this famous group.
You can see Gordon Parks the social activist. From left to right: pushing for safer streets, e.g. protection for our kids (devastating streetcar accidents); Jim Crow train FLA; his famous ‘American Gothic’ portrait of Ella Watson who cleaned nights at the FSA government office in Washington, DC. Parks thought this image heavy handed; there is essentially what amounts to a still-photo mini documentary of Ella Watson at home, with her family and at work for more of her story.
Gordon Parks did 1 Gloucester protection/safety photograph, a dangerous crossing.
You can see Gordon Parks the fashion photographer. Welder on the left is Rosie the Riveter style; and on the right Mrs. Lopez’s daughter, at home Gloucester, MA. The still-lives are Duke Ellington’s colorful ties and one of Jay Thorpe’s Four Freedoms textiles.
You can see Gordon Parks the humanist: ordinary big moments with Girls Scouts at a memorial service,Gloucester, MA; New York state camps where kids and staff are made up of diverse backgrounds; AldenCaptain and crew are relaxed, easy company together while in New York.
You can glimpse Gordon Parks the musician/composer through the arts he selected to cover while on assignment for the FSA/OWI. Marian Anderson’s broadcast at a mural dedication commemorating her Lincoln Memorial concert. Duke Ellington and the Orchestra at the Hurricane Club Ballroom, in New York City, April 1943.
There are also photos of Ellington trying to hear his band; Betty Rocha singing with the Orchestra; and individual portraits of musicians Rex Stewart, Ray Nance, Juan Tizol, Sunny Greer, and Johnny Hodges. The caption for Hodges includes the song title played during his portrait session, “Don’t Get around Much Anymore.” Parks also photographed the Club staff and customers
You can see Gordon Parks the movie Director. Some of his FSA/OWI work looks ready for neorealist cinema. (Rome, Open City global 1946.) The image on the left features generations of the women of the Machado/Lopez family. The boys at the Leonard Craske Fisherman at the Wheel memorial are not identified (one close up).
The center mirror image reminds me of film school students and their emulation of Citizen Kane (1941) and other camera tricks. The image in the mirror is from one of Parks early assignments with the FSA. Mirrors and reflections tend toward symbolism anyhow. Parks is there photographing HowardUniversity. It feels like he snapped this on the sly when seen with the other ‘dailies’. It’s Thanksgiving Dinner and President of Howard University, Mordicai Johnson, is being served by an African American.
There’s scene shots: movie-scale streets and crowd shots teeming in NYC or downtown Gloucester. Gordon Parks filed 50+ pictures for the Nature of the Enemy show, the second exhibition of the “This is Our War” series of outdoor installations on the promenade of RockefellerCenter, May – July, 1943. ForGloucester, it’s Memorial Day services.
You can see GordonParks the photo journalist and author through the captions he wrote. For the Gloucester FSA/OWI photos there is a complete photo-journalism expose where he tracks a journey from sea to plate that begins in Gloucester and ends up in New York. The collaboration of GMG Gloucester photographers Kathy Chapman and Marty Luster Fish on Fridays series is such an interesting connection.
“The mackerel caught off the Gloucester coast ends up on the table of Mrs. Rose Carrendeno, NYC, for Friday’s supper. She prepared and served the fish that she bought earlier that day from Joseph DeMartino’s shop who buys his fish each morning from the Fulton Fish Market. She and her husband have three sons in the armed forces…She stops to chat with Mrs. DeMartino about the ration problems while Joseph DeMartino cleans the mackerel she has purchased.
“Fishermen’s families often make trips down from New England towns to be in New York when the ship arrives. The fishermen consider that nothing is too good for their families.”
Close up of Mrs. Carrendeno’s ingredients for FOB
What is the FSA/OWI collection?
President Franklin Delano Roosevelt selected a social economist from ColumbiaUniversity, Rexford Tugwell, as Undersecretary of Agriculture in 1934. One of Tugwell’s policy directives included new analysis of assistance for dislocated farmers. He enticed a protégé, economist Roy E. Stryker, to come with him toWashington to direct the Resettlement Administration’s Historical Section.
Stryker was the perfect hire, and successfully eked out the program from 1935-1942. He believed photography would be the key tool. At Columbia, he was a master at amassing visuals and presentations to illustrate economic topics. While a Professor, he insisted his students get out and survey what’s around them, walk “the field”, “see.”
The FSA/OWI photographers documented daily life, the effects of the Depression and WWII across the country, the problems our country was facing, Main Streets, landmarks, portraits, workers, communities and families. There is great range of intention, style, subject and theme across the collection.
Some of the FSA/OWI photographs received nearly instantaneous and phenomenal fame.
The reputation of this work was so respected, so known, that employment in this program would later open doors to grants and commercial jobs, and for several artists, launched long illustrious careers.
Stryker promoted and protected these artists and the work as the best art dealers do: fleshing out projects, orchestrating exhibits, doggedly getting their work out there to be seen, and placing it in print– whether for church pamphlets or major media publications, or into galleries and collections. When he moved back to the private sector, he hired them. Unlike the art created for some other WPA-era agencies that was lost or destroyed, Stryker and his team had the foresight to try to protect all of it for perpetuity. At the closure of this program, he sought approval from President Roosevelt to transfer the master collection to the Library of Congress (nearly 280,000 items) as part of our National Archives, which was granted. Throughout the program he shipped boxes of prints to the New York Public Library (41,000 items) so that there would be an additional repository if a safe haven in Washington, DC, did not come together. As a result there have been two outstanding collections to study and access. (Other collections and institutions have smaller holdings of vintage prints.)
The Library of Congress remains the primary source for use and research. Through the 1950s, one could check out vintage prints along with books at the NYPL. As with many collections, the same images were often requested over and over. The Library of Congress digitized their FSA/OWI collection in the late 1980s and has been deeply committed to ongoing technological updates. In 2005 the NYPL determined that 1000 photos in their collection were actually “new” discoveries; they put these on line in 2012.
There are over 270,000 items in the Library of Congress Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information (FSA/OWI) archives, all digitized. IF you haven’t seen these images in person, look for exhibitions of the true vintage prints. There are many iconic photographs. Some capture a gap between ideals and reality. They have been studied, published and featured many times over. As the Gloucester images show, the collection is not solely images of farmers, rural problems, and Western states.
-Catherine Ryan / – all photos Library of Congress, FSA/OWI black and white photography collection
To search Gordon Parks FSA/OWI photographs for Gloucester, type in key words
Fishermen on the ALDEN
Frank Mineo, owner/Captain of the ALDEN
Coppola, Vito cook
Maniscaleo, Pasquale (engineer)
Milietello, Antonio (oldest)
Tiaro (or Tiano), Antonio
One photo of the Catherine C
Gordon Pew Fisheries worker, Joseph Lopez and his family
Machado, Mary, 97 year old grandmother, grandmother 11 men in armed forces
Lopez, Isabell, (Mary Machado’s daughter)
Lopez, Joseph (Mary Machado’s son-in-law); They have 2 boys in the armed forces and 6 children all together
Vagos, Dorothy (daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Lopez; husband Macalo)
Vagos, Macalo (son-in-law)
Vagos, Dorothy Jr (infant, great grandchild)
Vagos, Irene (has 2 boys and lives with mom/dad)
Vagos, Francis (Irene’s son)
Search for Gloucester landmarks. There are two or three photos in Rockport: the Pewter Shop and the owner Mrs. Whitney
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